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HPLC Fronting Peak Analysis and Solutions

guide offers detailed analysis and practical solutions to address fronting peaks in HPLC, ensuring accurate and reliable results.


Fronting peak is a phenomenon in which the front part of a peak in an HPLC chromatogram is asymmetrically broadened. It can affect the calculation of peak height and peak area, as well as the identification of trace components.

Effects of Fronting Peak

  • Affects peak height calculation: For the same peak area, the peak height of a fronting peak will be lower, resulting in an underestimation of the sample content.
  • Affects peak area calculation: The baseline of a fronting peak is not flat, making it difficult to determine the start point of the peak area, which affects the quantitative results.
  • Affects trace component identification: The fronting peak may obscure the trace peak behind it, making it impossible to identify it.
Effects of Fronting Peak
Causes of Fronting Peak

Causes of Fronting Peak

  • Sample overload: The sample amount exceeds the maximum loading capacity of the chromatographic column, resulting in peak broadening.
  • Improper sample solvent selection: The elution strength of the sample solvent is too strong, causing some of the sample to pass through the chromatographic column quickly.
  • Damaged chromatographic column: The chromatographic column packing dissolves or the column bed collapses, resulting in reduced column efficiency.
  • Peak interference: Two compounds coelute, resulting in a small peak in front of the main peak.

Solutions for Fronting Peak

  • Reduce sample volume or concentration
  • Choose an appropriate sample solvent
  • Replace the chromatographic column
  • Add sample purification steps
  • Adjust the mobile phase to improve separation
HPLC Fronting peaks peak smooth column


Fronting peak is a common problem in HPLC that can affect quantitative analysis and trace component identification. By understanding the causes and solutions of fronting peak, this problem can be effectively avoided.

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